Automatic inspection system

Automatic inspection system for dimensional measurements of the saw blade milling cutter, The demand for measuring equipments of automatic optical inspection has grown rapidly, because of its benefits of promoted efficiency and higher precision. Instead of manual projection measurements, measurement performance and efficiency can be obviously enhanced by the image measurement system. In this investigation, digital image processing and geometrical measurement principles have been integrated to develop a dynamic measurement system for the dimensional measurements of a saw blade milling cutter. The repeatability of the measurement system has been analyzed and its accuracy has been verified by using commercial 3D image measurement system. The analysis results show that the dimensional precision of 25μm and the angular precision of 0.21° can be realized by the self-developed measurement system. Between the results of the developed system and reference standard system, there are 25μm deviation in dimensional measurement and 0.26° in angular measurement. That measuring performances can meet the industrial requirement and the higher measurement efficiency can be achieved.

For advanced manufactureand quality control in the mechanical industry, it is necessary todominate concerning methods for theproduct inspection.Although currently many inspection machines or instruments have been offered for 2D or 3D dimensional measurements, but there isno properautomation inspection system for the dimensional measurement of the saw blade milling cutterwhose quality will remarkably influence the precision of saw bladesproducedby it. Hence no accurate data can be provided for correction or compensationwhen the saw blade milling cutter is processed.Generally the dimensions of saw blade milling cutters could beverified by thatofsaw bladesprocessed by the milling cutter, after saw blades have been inspected by the optical projector. According to the dimensionalresults acquired by the indirect measurement method, the concerning dimensions could be compensated andthe saw blade milling cutter would be groundcorrectly.With this above-mentioned method, dimensional and angular measurement errors have been ofteninduced. Because considerable teeth of a saw bladeneed to be inspected, it will be inefficiency and there will also be manual errors resulting from analysis of the inspector during the manual procedure. Therefore, the inspection results could notconcretely reveal the quality of a saw blade milling cutter.In this investigation on the dimensional measurement of the saw blade milling cutter, an image inspection system has been developed by integrating the image measurement technology, CCD, backlight panel of LED, rotary shaft of servo motor and x-y biaxial stage. By the system, the image position of some points in a saw blade milling cuttercan be automatically acquired and then dimensional parameters can beestimated with aid of the self-developed measuring program. The error of the manual operationwould be significantlyminimized. The measuringparameters of a saw blade milling cutterconsist oftooth pitch, processing height, height of a fulltooth, radius of a tooth top and pressure angle.The quantitative measurement results can be provided for the positioning compensation of the processing machineto realize the more accurate dimensions of a processed saw blade. With this new measurementfunction,the efficiency and accuracy can be obviously enhanced.


Different optimization and process control procedures

Comparison of different optimization and process control procedures, used for optimizing the cutting conditions during milling. It includes also a part of using soft computer techniques in process control procedures. Milling is a cutting procedure dependent of a number of variables. These variables are dependent from each other in consequence, if we change one variable, the others change too. PSO and GA algorithm are applied to the CNC milling program to improve cutting conditions, improve end finishing, reduce tool wear and reduce the stress on the tool, the machine and the machined part. At the end a summary will be given of pasted and future researches.

This paper presents a comparison between two different types of machining a LENS material. The first type is a classical machining with fixed parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, radial depth of cut,axial depth of cut and number of passes. The second type of machining has implemented a PSO optimization of cutting parameters.In today’s production industry, the need for high precision and low cost products is very high. Therefore a lot of research hasbeen done on tool path optimization, machining performance prediction, surface roughness prediction and process optimization. All these researches were conducted to improve end finishing of a product. Using soft computer techniques, the input parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, radial depth of cut, axial depth of cut, number of passes,…etc.) are being optimized for a maximum end quality. To achieve a raise in production, we need to implement a whole array of improvements and changes to our production process. The need for speed and accuracy in machining is growing every day. In a review of metal cutting analysesby Finnie (1956), it was pointed out—“Despite the large number of attempts, past and present, to analyze metal cutting, a basic relationship between the various variables is still lacking.” Although this was more or less true, we could say that this statement is also valid in the 21stcentury. We are on the breach; we discover and invent new materials and methods of machining every day. One of these materials is made with the LENS technology. This new method can produce composite materials. Main advantage of LENS material is the combinations of mechanical properties –we combine only the best properties to get a new material. To machine such a material, there has to be done a lot of researches and test. At first, the technique to be used is milling. Milling is a technique, were the main feed movement is done by the tool. The end product can be stationary or, in some cases, it can also move in one or two directions. This depends on the milling centre capability. The milling centre allows us to change and control following parameters:F -Feed rate (mm/min)f -Feed rate (mm/tooth)N -Spindle speed (rev/min) P, Pm-Required power for the operation, motor power (kW) RD-Radial depth of cut (mm)AD-Axial depth of cut (mm)The main surface finish parameter (Ra) is influenced by a correlation of parameters. Researchers use different approaches and techniques to provide a satisfactory result, thisis a maximum on surface finish and a minimum on costs. To optimize and regulate such a process, major soft computing tools are used


essence of journalism

It’s obvious that journalism is going to remain forever ensconced as an essential of public service, thanks to the high standards it requires and the great admiration it commands. If you are interested in becoming a journalist, you should certainly consider this book, which examines all the possibilities for breaking news. It’s a short introduction to all the aspects of the trade, from sourcing to writing to photography. The author lays out his arguments in such a way that the reader is armed with all the information necessary to succeed in this demanding field.


Almost everyone who reads newspapers and other periodicals quickly becomes familiar with some aspect of it. This book seeks to explain the essence of journalism as a profession to those who are just beginning to study the craft. Many students pursue journalism through college and find it difficult to leave the professional aspect of their employment behind. This book seeks to make clear the distinction between the roles assumed by journalists in various news media organizations and other associations.


It is estimated that in the past century, there have been more than three hundred distinct publications in print. A variety of new mediums have appeared on the scene since then, including radio and television, but the one thing that has not changed is the importance of newspapers and other periodicals as sources of information. They have always been considered the ultimate professional journals. There is no question that their role in society has always been important, but it seems that they are more popular among the general public now than previously. As more people are turning to newspapers for their news and information, the demand for highly qualified and knowledgeable reporters is on the rise.


There has always been a close connection between the profession of journalism and political power, since the media is often used to influence public opinion. The essence of journalism is to inform the public, so the role of a news organization reflects on the attitude of a democratic society. Citizens who feel they have a right to know what is going on in their elected representatives’ offices or other public institutions should be able to see them through the eyes of a journalist. Reporters work to provide accurate information to the general public.


The essence of journalism is to tell the reader something that is not only important, but significant enough to interest the reader to take action. The purpose of newspapers is not only to entertain its readers, but to inform them about events that affect their lives. News organizations are available to anyone who needs a wide range of information at their fingertips. All you have to do is pick up your favorite weekend magazine and turn to page one. Newspapers are one of the oldest forms of mass communication in the world and they will continue to play an important role in our daily lives.


Newspapers and other news media were crucial to the development of modern United States. Many changes have come about due to the role of news media, but one of the biggest changes was the increase in local newspaper circulation. In the early 19th century, the only major newspaper published in the entire United States was the New York Evening Post. From then on, newspapers spread all over the country, as more area’s became open for publication. The role of a local newspaper was to provide citizens with the information they needed.


The essence of journalism is to use the power of words to inform, not to inform and sell. Today we tend to use both for different reasons, but either way, it is important that the public know what is going on. Stories and photographs that inspire change and motivation can be just as important as the stories and photographs themselves. The importance of a main article is that it needs to grab the reader’s attention. If the article is not compelling, then there will be very few people reading it and this means that the impact of it will be minimal.


The essence of this form of breaking news is the ability to provide the reader with an accurate and concise summary of what the main article has to say. For example, if a local story has been occurring, then you would want to include some details of how the event happened. However, if the reader read that the event happened due to environmental pollution, then you should take the time to explain why the pollution caused the event and what should be done to prevent it in future. Another reason why quality journalism is important is because it helps consumers make decisions based on quality information. If the reader finds something that is not correct, they can make a different decision or simply not click on the link to read the article again.


Apa yang dilakukan Insinyur Sipil?

Apa yang dilakukan Insinyur Sipil?

Definisi Teknik Sipil

Sebelum mengetahui terkait insinyur sipil akan lebih baik kita cari tahu apa itu teknik sipil, Teknik Sipil adalah bidang ilmu teknik yang berkaitan dengan desain, konstruksi dan pemeliharaan gedung, bendungan, jembatan, terowongan, jalan raya dan struktur lainnya dengan menggunakan hukum fisika, persamaan matematika dan teori mekanika. Insinyur Sipil memanfaatkan sumber daya yang tersedia (keahlian, bahan, tenaga kerja) untuk menyelesaikan proyek dalam rentang waktu tertentu dengan tetap memperhatikan waktu, pengeluaran, masalah lingkungan dan bahaya fisik proyek.

Juga dikenal sebagai ibu dari semua teknik, ini adalah yang tertua, terluas, paling sederhana, dan berguna dari semua ilmu teknik. Menjadi bidang yang lebih luas Teknik Sipil dibagi menjadi subkategori dan / atau bidang berikut.
– Teknik Geotek
Rekayasa Struktural
– Teknik Transportasi
– Rekayasa Sumber Daya Air
– Teknik Lingkungan
– Rekayasa Gempa
– Perencanaan Kota

Apa yang dilakukan Insinyur Sipil?

Seorang Insinyur Sipil bertanggung jawab atas perencanaan, desain, konstruksi dan / atau pemeliharaan struktur. Insinyur Sipil dapat bekerja di perusahaan konstruksi swasta, organisasi pekerjaan umum pemerintah atau di universitas sebagai rekan peneliti atau guru. Insinyur sipil dapat menjadi surveyor, penulis laporan teknis atau bahkan manajer proyek.

Ruang Lingkup Teknik Sipil

Karena meningkatnya ruang lingkup teknik sipil dengan berjalannya waktu, kini telah terdiversifikasi menjadi banyak cabang studi. Beberapa yang penting termasuk teknik struktural, teknik geoteknik, teknik transportasi, teknik hidrolik, teknik lingkungan dan beberapa bidang studi yang lebih penting. Insinyur dipekerjakan oleh berbagai perusahaan di Amerika Serikat, mulai dari bisnis kecil yang baru mulai yang berfokus pada ide penemuan baru hingga perusahaan skala besar yang mengerjakan kontrak besar.

Insinyur dari berbagai bidang terus bekerja sama untuk menciptakan produk yang sukses. Saat mempertimbangkan desain dan pembuatan pesawat terbang, misalnya, tenaga kerja di belakang pengembangan akan mencakup insinyur penerbangan yang mengoptimalkan jalur aliran udara, insinyur analisis yang mengevaluasi kekuatan roda pendaratan yang dikembangkan oleh insinyur desain, insinyur elektronik yang mengembangkan metode pengkabelan dan kontrol pilot, insinyur ergonomis merancang tempat duduk yang nyaman dan insinyur komputer memprogram sistem operasi pesawat, termasuk segala sesuatu mulai dari sistem autopilot hingga sistem panggilan awak kabin.

Pentingnya dan Aplikasi Teknik Sipil

Insinyur sipil menjadi semakin penting seiring berjalannya waktu. Sekarang, mereka juga bertanggung jawab untuk menjaga sistem pengendalian kebakaran dan memasang titik keluar api cepat di gedung yang mereka rancang. Ini akan membantu meminimalkan korban jiwa selama kecelakaan kebakaran. Teknik sipil adalah salah satu profesi teknik tertua. Prestasi kuno seperti pembangunan piramida Mesir dan sistem jalan Romawi didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip teknik sipil. Aspek lain yang sangat penting dari teknik sipil adalah teknik lingkungan. Dalam hal ini, insinyur sipil memperhatikan penerapan berbagai metode untuk memurnikan udara, air dan tanah yang terkontaminasi. Sistem yang tercemar harus dibersihkan, limbah diekstraksi dan unsur pokok yang dimurnikan harus dikirim kembali ke sistem alami.

Aplikasi komputer dan perangkat lunak untuk Teknik Sipil

Di bidang aplikasi perangkat lunak komputer teknik sipil menjadi lebih penting, terkenal dan efisien. Ada program yang dapat menggambar struktur, menganalisis stabilitasnya, mendesain, dan melakukan perhitungan lain yang diperlukan dalam beberapa klik. Moteover, penetapan biaya dan estimasi, perencanaan proyek dan pekerjaan matematika lainnya dapat dengan mudah dilakukan dengan program yang tersedia saat ini.


Tahapan dalam Proyek Rekayasa Struktural

Tahapan dalam Proyek Rekayasa Struktural

Perancang rekayasa struktural biasanya bertindak dalam pelayanan kepada perancang fungsional, yang biasanya memberikan kepemimpinan dalam melaksanakan proyek rekayasa struktural. Di bidang teknik sipil, ia membantu insinyur transportasi, insinyur hidrolik, atau insinyur sanitasi dengan menyediakan struktur yang dibutuhkan untuk melaksanakan proyek mereka. Dalam konstruksi bangunan, dia adalah salah satu kolaborator utama arsitek. Dengan cara yang sama, insinyur struktur membantu insinyur mekanik, kimia, atau listrik dalam merancang mesin atau fasilitas berat yang diperlukan untuk proyek mereka. Dia dapat mengalihkan seluruh keahlian dan aktivitasnya ke dalam arsitektur angkatan laut atau teknik penerbangan dan menjadi spesialis dalam desain struktur kapal atau pesawat. Oleh karena itu, seorang insinyur struktur harus memiliki pengalaman yang beragam untuk memanfaatkan potensi penuhnya. Tahapan proyek teknik struktural dijelaskan di bawah ini secara rinci.
Proyek rekayasa struktural dapat dibagi menjadi tiga fase:
– Perencanaan,
– Desain dan
– Konstruksi

1. Tahap Perencanaan dalam Proyek Rekayasa Struktural

Tahap perencanaan melibatkan pertimbangan berbagai persyaratan dan faktor yang mempengaruhi tata letak umum dan dimensi struktur. Ini mengarah pada pilihan satu atau mungkin beberapa jenis alternatif struktur yang menawarkan solusi umum terbaik. Pertimbangan utama adalah fungsi struktur, apakah itu untuk menutupi atau rumah, untuk menyampaikan, atau untuk mendukung dalam ruang. Banyak pertimbangan sekunder juga terlibat, termasuk sebagai faktor estetika, sosiologis, hukum, finansial, ekonomi, lingkungan, atau konservasi sumber daya. Selain itu, ada persyaratan dan batasan struktural dan konstruksi yang juga dapat mempengaruhi tipe struktural yang dipilih.

2. Tahap Desain

Fase desain melibatkan pertimbangan rinci dari solusi alternatif, yang berkembang dalam fase perencanaan. Ini mengarah pada penentuan proporsi, dimensi, dan detail yang paling sesuai dari semua alternatif yang sedang dipertimbangkan untuk konstruksi elemen dan sambungan struktural. Biasanya, sebelum tahap desain akhir tercapai, solusi terbaik telah diidentifikasi dan rencana konstruksi akhir disiapkan untuk pemilihan ini. Kadang-kadang, pilihan bergantung pada fitur ekonomi dan konstruksi yang tidak dapat dievaluasi secara akurat kecuali dengan penawaran kompetitif, sehingga rencana penawaran akhir harus disiapkan untuk alternatif kompetitif.

3. Tahap Konstruksi

Tahap konstruksi meliputi pengadaan bahan, peralatan, personel, fabrikasi bengkel anggota dan sub rakitan. Ini juga termasuk transportasi mereka ke lokasi, konstruksi lapangan yang sebenarnya, dan kegiatan ereksi di lokasi. Selama fase ini, tentu saja, beberapa desain ulang mungkin diperlukan. Alasan untuk desain ulang ini dapat berupa kesulitan pondasi yang tidak terduga atau jika bahan tertentu tidak dapat diperoleh, atau karena alasan lain.


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